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In Australia, over two thirds of our bioenergy is sourced from sugarcane waste.1
Bioenergy is energy produced from recently living organic matter, known as biomass.
Biomass can also be converted into liquid (biofuels) and gaseous fuels (biogas) to power electricity generation and heating systems and to provide fuel for transportation.
Biomass can be any plant or animal matter, but six types are generally used to produce energy.
Types of biomass
Bark, sawdust and straw.
By-product formed during paper manufacturing.
Composed mainly of methane and is captured from landfill sites and sewage plants.
Crops grown specifically for energy production, like algae and grass.
Commercial crop residues
Sugarcane (bagasse), sweet sorghum, wheat and vegetable oils such as sunflower and canola.
Municipal solid waste
Household garbage and prunings.
Biomass and fossil fuels differ mostly in age. Yes, they are both formed from once-living matter, but the organisms that form fossil fuels lived and absorbed carbon millions of years ago under different environmental conditions.
When fossil fuels are burned, the carbon is released into the atmosphere, but it takes millions of years to be re-absorbed and form new fossil fuels. This means that fossil fuels are adding more carbon to the atmosphere than what is being removed.
Because biomass has a shorter lifecycle, the carbon released when it’s burned is the same amount absorbed during its lifetime.2 The process of producing (growing, harvesting) and converting the biomass does not produce any extra carbon dioxide. This is known as a closed carbon loop and qualifies biomass as a carbon-neutral energy source.
Source: New South Wales Department of Trade and Investment 2013.3
The other big difference between biomass and fossil fuels is that biomass is a renewable energy source because the plant and animal matter it comes from can be regrown or reproduced.
Bioenergy currently accounts for nearly one percent of Australia's electricity production (about 2,500 GWh per year), and around 11 percent of all renewable electricity production.4
Electricity generation in Australia's National Electricity Market (NEM)4